Over Temperature Effects of Gm_critical | A Technical Review

The emergence of the IoT has accelerated the trend towards lower power consumption on many MCU and RF chipsets, pressuring IC designers to wring out every bit of energy savings in their circuits. The consequence, pertaining to the clocking scheme, is usually a weaker oscillator loop amplifier starved of transconductance (gm). The reduced power consumption has the potential to severely affect analog circuits, such as the Pierce oscillator.

The Pierce oscillator driving quartz crystals is one of the most common circuits in the electronics industry. Present in almost every microcontroller, RF chipsets, and many other IC’s, this circuit is the true workhorse of timing in almost every device developed today. As most design engineers employ negative resistance analysis to assess closed-loop dynamics, some may ignore another very significant metric – gm_critical.

As the name implies, gm_critical can be defined as the level of critical value of closed-loop transconductance mandatory to keep the amplifier in linear region, while maintaining sufficient forward gain at the desired phase shift of (n*2π). The closed-loop overall gain margin (GM) is mathematically represented as:

GM = gm / gm_critical ………. (1)

Whereas; gm = oscillator loop amplifier’s intrinsic transconductance (µA/V, or mA/V)
gm_critical = closed-loop transconductance needed to keep the amplifier in linear region with sufficient forward gain at the desired phase shift (µA/V, or mA/V)

It is a well-established industry figure of merit to target GM > 5, with minimum value of 3. With the reduction in the intrinsic gm value, it is paramount to simultaneously reduce the gm_critical needed for sustained oscillations.

It should be noted that gm_critical has significant dependence on the external resonator’s electrical characteristics at the desired resonant frequency and is outlined in equation (2).

gm_critical = 4 * ESR * (2πF)2 * (C0 + CL)2 ………… (2)

From equation (2) it is evident that any significant reduction in gm must be counter-balanced with a reduction in gm_critical to ensure that the closed-loop overall margin (GM) remains the same. For instance, consider the following example:

gm = 2.7 µA/V; GM = 5; then gm_critical = 0.54 µA/V maximum
Now, if the gm is reduced to 1.0 µA/V, to keep GM = 5; the gm_critical = 0.20 µA/V maximum

In equation (2) the three critical parameters that determine the feasibility of this counter-balance are the ESR, C0 and CL of the Quartz Crystal. To achieve lower gm_critical, all three of these parameters must be simultaneously reduced to ensure proper overall gain margin (GM), while the oscillator amplifier’s transconductance gm is lowered.

As the power optimized silicon expands its domination of the electronic industry, reducing the intrinsic gm, the gm_critical metric is the most important criteria to ensure robust oscillator loop performance.

Abracon’s family of newly released Performance Optimized IoT Crystals have been engineered to specifically address the falling transconductance values across the industry and are compatible with industry’s lowest gm_critical designs. The ABM8W/ABM10W/ABM11W/ABM12W MHz series are guaranteed to operate with gm_critical as low as 3.55mA/V for 50MHz operation. The ABS06W/ABS07W 32.768kHz Tuning Fork Crystals are guaranteed to operate with industry lowest gm_critical value of 0.276µA/V @ 25°C in 2.0×1.2×0.6mm and 0.191µA/V @ 25°C in 3.2×1.5×0.9mm packages.

Plots A and B represent over extended temperature oscillation sustainability matrix of these state-of-the art 32.768kHz solutions ideally suited for energy saving RTC applications.

As transconductance (gm) of most Pierce oscillators dive to unprecedented low levels, quartz crystals have to adapt to maintain sustainable oscillations. Abracon has embraced and overcome this challenge by designing and producing, lower plating load capacitance (CL) and lower equivalent series resistance (ESR) Crystals, while simultaneously lowering the (electrode package) capacitance C0.

Meeting the lowest gm_critical requirements demanded by energy saving MCUs and RF chipsets means guaranteed low CL, ESR and C0. Abracon’s specialized design and processing techniques address this paradigm shift and brings both MHz and kHz Performance Optimized Quartz Crystals to the market. Uniquely engineered for the IoT/Wearable/Consumer Electronics market, these crystals are ready for the future of lower power engineering.

Abracon LLC celebrates 25 years of business

Austin, TX – Abracon, LLC (Abracon), a leading global manufacturer of passive & electromechanical timing, synchronization, power, connectivity and RF solutions, celebrated it’s 25th anniversary this past week. What once started as an idea in a Southern California garage has transformed into a life-long mission of quality, customer service, and groundbreaking achievements. Abracon, a company steeped in innovation, recently celebrated 25 years in business this past Saturday. It was a time to recollect humble beginnings and reflect on the past with a clear focus for the future; a future of continued growth for this leading global manufacturer.

Mike White, VP of Sales, stated “We’ve built an extremely solid foundation for our company assembling the best team of sales leaders, reps and channel partners in the industry. Coupled with our excellent internal support staff, this team will continue to achieve new levels of success. I’m honored to be associated with such a great group of people.”

One level of success is the fact that Abracon is growing exponentially. With an active customer base of over 25,000, Abracon continues to reach new heights of service and sales. Recently the Abracon office located in Irvine, California moved to Laguna Hills, California. Also, two facilities doubled in size; the office located in China and the Austin, Texas headquarters. These recent additions will assist in maintaining the highest quality of technical support that Abracon’s customers have come to know.

With no signs of slowing down, Abracon continues to impress the industry where they rank among the highest standard of quality. Abracon’s mission will never be complete. There are always new questions to be asked, new challenges to be accomplished, and new ideas to be thought. Here’s to 25 years. Here’s to the constant pursuit of the power of linking together.

About Abracon, LLC
Founded in 1992, and headquartered in Spicewood, Texas, Abracon is a leading global manufacturer of passive and electromechanical timing, synchronization, power, connectivity and RF solutions. Abracon offers a wide selection of quartz timing crystals and oscillators, MEMS oscillators, real time clocks (RTC), Bluetooth modules, ceramic resonators, SAW filters and resonators, power and RF inductors, transformers, circuit protection components and RF antennas and wireless charging coils. The company is ISO9001-2008 certified with design & application engineering resources in Texas and sales offices in Texas, California, China, Taiwan, Singapore, Scotland, Israel, Hungary, UK, and Germany. Abracon’s products are offered through its global distribution network. For more information about Abracon, visit www.abracon.com.

Abracon and TTI Inc Announce Asia Partnership

Austin, TX – Abracon, LLC (Abracon), a leading global manufacturer of passive & electromechanical timing, synchronization, power, connectivity and RF solutions, announces Asia partnership with TTI, Inc., the leading authorized distributor of interconnect, passive, electromechanical and discrete components. The Asia partnership is an extension of TTI and Abracon’s existing global distribution agreement which was announced by both companies in April 2017.

Michael Calabria, Abracon’s CEO said, “With mutual focus on IP&E and discrete components, the two companies are leaders in the industry and a natural fit. As many users of electronics components rely on the supply chain and go-to-market benefits provided by distributors, Abracon is excited to partner with TTI to support its highly valued customers.”

Anthony Chan, President of TTI Asia Pacific, commented on the addition of Abracon to TTI Asia’s specialized line card, “I am pleased to welcome Abracon to be a TTI business partner in Asia. Abracon offers a wide selection of latest technologies in frequency control, timing and synchronization. I am confident that our partnership in Asia will create additional value to our customers.”

About TTI
TTI, Inc. a Berkshire Hathaway company, is an authorized, specialty distributor of interconnect, passive and electromechanical (IP&E) components and the distributor of choice for industrial and consumer electronics manufacturers worldwide. Broader and deeper inventory, leading-edge products and custom supply chain solutions have established TTI as the leading specialist in electronic component distribution. Globally, the company maintains 1.2 million cubic feet of dedicated warehouse space containing over 850,000 component part numbers. Along with its subsidiaries, Mouser Electronics and Sager Electronics, TTI employs more than 4,700 employees and is represented in over 100 locations throughout North America, Europe and Asia. For more information about TTI, visit www.ttiinc.com.

About Abracon, LLC
Founded in 1992, and headquartered in Spicewood, Texas, Abracon is a leading global manufacturer of passive and electromechanical timing, synchronization, power, connectivity and RF solutions. Abracon offers a wide selection of quartz timing crystals and oscillators, MEMS oscillators, real time clocks (RTC), Bluetooth modules, ceramic resonators, SAW filters and resonators, power and RF inductors, transformers, circuit protection components and RF antennas and wireless charging coils. The company is ISO9001-2008 certified with design & application engineering resources in Texas and sales offices in Texas, California, China, Taiwan, Singapore, Scotland, Israel, Hungary, UK, and Germany. Abracon’s products are offered through its global distribution network. For more information about Abracon, visit www.abracon.com.

Coils for Wireless Power and Wireless Charging | Solutions Guide Released

Austin, TX – Abracon, LLC (Abracon), a leading global manufacturer of passive & electromechanical timing, synchronization, power, connectivity and RF components announces the Coils for Wireless Charging and Wireless Power Solutions Guide featuring the 20W RX wireless charging coil optimized for Semtech’s LinkCharge 20™. The solutions guide makes it fast and easy to select the right coil solution from available dimensions and power capabilities by providing information on the various uses for wireless charging and wireless power in high power applications, industrial, robotics, IoT and wearables.

Abracon specializes on a broad range of receiver coils starting at 12mm and 15mm in diameter, which are perfect for industrial IoT applications. Ideal applications include robotics, drones, automation systems, power tools, and medical devices, which all benefit from the reliable and consistent power delivery to device batteries. Abracon also offers a wide range of coils suitable for either transmitter or receiver applications.

VIEW WIRELESS POWER & WIRELESS CHARGING SOLUTIONS GUIDE

“As many of today’s electronic devices become roamable,” states Juan Conchas, Director or Marketing with Abracon, “the need for wireless charging will inevitably expand. Unplugging from the need for a traditional connector with metal contacts improves reliability, durability, robustness and enables ease of use without limiting device charge times. Portable and roamable devices of all types will benefit from the broad wireless charging solutions that Abracon offers.”

All of Abracon’s wireless charging coil solutions are in stock and available through franchised distributors. View the solutions guide here: http://abracon.com/Support/wireless-charging-solutions-guide.pdf

About Abracon, LLC
Founded in 1992, and headquartered in Spicewood, Texas, Abracon is a leading global manufacturer of passive and electromechanical timing, synchronization, power, connectivity and RF solutions. Abracon offers a wide selection of quartz timing crystals and oscillators, MEMS oscillators, real time clocks (RTC), Bluetooth modules, ceramic resonators, SAW filters and resonators, power and RF inductors, transformers, circuit protection components and RF antennas and wireless charging coils. The company is ISO9001-2008 certified with design & application engineering resources in Texas and sales offices in Texas, California, China, Taiwan, Singapore, Scotland, Israel, Hungary, UK, and Germany. Abracon’s products are offered through its global distribution network.

Abracon Announces Availability of its Power Inductor Solutions Guide

(March 29, 2017) Abracon, LLC. (Abracon), a leading global manufacturer of frequency control, signal conditioning, clocking and magnetic components, announces availability of the power inductor solutions guide. Critical within switch-mode power supply (SMPS) circuits, DC-DC converters and passive filtering applications, power inductors are required in power supply applications where linear regulators cannot be used. SMPS devices rely on the inductor as the primary energy storage element that enables high efficiency power delivery, reducing heat losses and increasing output power rating.

Abracon provides a variety of solutions including ceramic chip inductors, wire-wound and molded SMD inductors, high power toroid and high power drum inductors. With its breadth of products, Abracon power inductors support a wide variety of applications including IoT/wearables, battery operated and portable, industrial, medical monitoring, medical imaging, networking, point-of-load (POL), RF and communications, lighting and instrumentation.

“One size does not fit all,” says Juan Conchas, Director of Marketing for Abracon. “This solutions guide helps customers select the right inductor for each application.”

“Abracon offers so many varieties of magnetics technologies that it’s important to develop resources that help customers through the design cycle,” comments Syed Raza, VP of Engineering with Abracon. “Whether a customer needs a compact chip inductor for IoT or wearables or a high power toroid for LED lighting ballasts, Abracon can deliver the right inductor.”

Standard and custom inductors are available through Abracon’s franchised distributors. To download the guide, follow this link: http://abracon.com/Support/Power Inductor_Solutions Guide.pdf

About Abracon, LLC
Founded in 1992, and headquartered in Irvine, California, Abracon is a global manufacturer of frequency control, signal conditioning, clock distribution and magnetic components. Abracon offers a wide selection of Quartz Timing Crystals, Crystal and MEMS Oscillators, Real Time Clocks, Antennas, Bluetooth Modules, Ceramic Resonators, SAW Filters and Resonators, Inductors, Transformers, Circuit Protection Components and Wireless RF Antennas. The company is ISO9001-2008 certified with design & Application Engineering resources in California & Illinois; and Sales offices in Texas, California, China, Taiwan, Singapore, Scotland, and Germany. Abracon’s products are offered through its Global Distribution Network.

Abracon announces availability of latest components solutions catalog

Abracon, LLC. (Abracon), a leading global manufacturer of frequency control, signal conditioning, clock distribution and magnetic components, announces availability of the latest version of the components solutions catalog featuring a full line of timing & synchronization, power & energy and RF connectivity. Available in both print and soft copy, the catalog is designed to help any customer quickly arrive at passive component solutions intended for a variety of functions within IoT, wearables, communications, cloud computing, industrial, automotive, instrumentation and medical monitoring.

“Abracon supports over 20,000 active SKU part numbers with thousands of new part numbers introduced each year,” says Camille Vargas, Marketing Communications and UX for Abracon. “Our customers rely on a simplified catalog that summarizes the most significant features of each product family within the major product lines and makes it easy to select between a variety of technologies.”

Updates in this version of the catalog include numerous new product families such as IoT optimized crystals, high power toroid inductors, long range RFID tags optimized for metal surfaces, 10GBase-T RJ45 jacks with integrated magnetics and wireless charging coils for 20W solutions. Additional updates include solutions guides for antenna, ultra-low jitter and precision oscillators and high frequency programmable TCXOs.

“Concise and effective product selection tools improve our customers design cycle and get them to market quicker,” comments Juan Conchas, Director of Marketing for Abracon. “The latest version of the catalog reflects Abracon’s commitment to support customers’ need for a broad line of technology solutions that addresses the needs of today’s fast design cycles.”

To learn more and download a free soft copy of the PDF format catalog follow this link: Abracon Component Solution Catalog

To request a free hard copy of the catalog, submit your information including mailing address through this link: Request Hardcopy Catalog

Hard copy requests are fulfilled within 1 to 2 weeks.

About Abracon, LLC
Founded in 1992, and headquartered in Irvine, California, Abracon is a global manufacturer of frequency control, signal conditioning, clock distribution and magnetic components. Abracon offers a wide selection of Quartz Timing Crystals, Crystal and MEMS Oscillators, Real Time Clocks, Antennas, Bluetooth Modules, Ceramic Resonators, SAW Filters and Resonators, Inductors, Transformers, Circuit Protection Components and Wireless RF Antennas. The company is ISO9001-2008 certified with design & Application Engineering resources in California & Illinois; and Sales offices in Texas, California, China, Taiwan, Singapore, Scotland, and Germany. Abracon’s products are offered through its Global Distribution Network.

Abracon teams with Semtech, announces wireless charging coil for use on LinkCharge™ 20W reference design

Abracon, LLC. (Abracon), a leading global manufacturer of frequency control, signal conditioning, clock distribution and magnetic components, teams with Semtech (Nasdaq: SMTC) to deliver a complete wireless charging reference design using the AWCCA-RX350300-101 wireless charging coil on the receiver side of the solution. Targeting high growth end markets such as industrial automation, medical devices, portable audio/video, robotics, drones, appliances, power tools, IoT, and wearables, the reference design presents a complete solution that delivers up to 20W of total power. Wireless charging promises to liberate devices from the need to plug in to complex and failure prone connectors with exposed metallic contacts. Charging a battery with this solution only requires placement of the coils in close proximity and alignment. Power couples inductively from the transmit coil to the receive coil through a narrow gap without galvanic contact.

The benefits of wireless charging eliminate the need for connectors, which can be costly and are prone to failure. Wireless charging introduces the possibility to fully encapsulate a device, making it water tight, dust proof and eliminating exposed contacts that can corrode. With a 20W power delivery capability, wireless charging can maintain fast charge times.

“The next mobility revolution,” comments Juan Conchas, Director of Marketing for Abracon, “drives the need for untethered devices that are more ‘roamable’. From robots and drones to wearable items, many of today’s devices cannot accommodate any connectors—not even for power.”

“Wireless connectivity is a focus technology for Abracon,” says Syed Raza, VP of Engineering with Abracon. “It’s only natural for next generation devices to shed all connectors and go completely wireless—data and power.”

Semtech’s LinkCharge™20 Series reference design (SKU: TSDMRX-19V20W-EVM) may be purchased through Semtech’s distribution channel. The AWCCA-RX350300-101 may be purchased separately and is available from any of Abracon’s distribution partners.

Semtech’s LinkCharge wireless charging platform provides a range of solutions to enable wireless power in next-generation products for consumers, infrastructure and industrial applications. It includes the LinkCharge 40 Series, the LinkCharge 20 Series and the LinkCharge CT (counter top), an out-of-box-ready infrastructure wireless charging system for use in public, enterprise and consumer settings. The LinkCharge platform is compatible with the major industry standards ensuring end products can quickly charge any wireless charging-equipped device even as the industry adoption continues to grow and evolve. More information about LinkCharge platform and the rest of Semtech’s wireless charging solutions is available at www.semtech.com/wireless-charging.

About Abracon, LLC
Founded in 1992, and headquartered in Irvine, California, Abracon is a global manufacturer of frequency control, signal conditioning, clock distribution and magnetic components. Abracon offers a wide selection of Quartz Timing Crystals, Crystal and MEMS Oscillators, Real Time Clocks, Antennas, Bluetooth Modules, Ceramic Resonators, SAW Filters and Resonators, Inductors, Transformers, Circuit Protection Components and Wireless RF Antennas. The company is ISO9001-2008 certified with design & Application Engineering resources in California & Illinois; and Sales offices in Texas, California, China, Taiwan, Singapore, Scotland, and Germany. Abracon’s products are offered through its Global Distribution Network.

About Semtech
Semtech Corporation is a leading supplier of analog and mixed-signal semiconductors for high-end consumer, enterprise computing, communications, and industrial equipment. Products are designed to benefit the engineering community as well as the global community. The Company is dedicated to reducing the impact it, and its products, have on the environment. Internal green programs seek to reduce waste through material and manufacturing control, use of green technology and designing for resource reduction. Publicly traded since 1967, Semtech is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol SMTC. For more information, visit www.semtech.com.

Semtech, the Semtech logo, and LinkCharge are registered trademarks or service marks of Semtech Corporation and/or its affiliates.

Abracon announces ASMPH family of compact multi-layer chip inductors for power applications

AUSTIN, TX. (19 January 2017) Abracon, LLC. (Abracon), a leading global manufacturer of passive & electromechanical timing, synchronization, power, connectivity and RF components announces the ASMPH family of miniature multilayer power inductors for use in small form factor or battery powered solutions. The compact size, high self-resonant frequency (SRF)  and high efficiency, makes these inductors ideal for DC/DC conversion in space limited designs, including IoT and wearables. Standard operating temperature of -40°C to 85°C and robust construction is ideally suited for industrial applications. Constructed using low loss ferrite material, these inductors support high-speed switching frequencies used in power supply controllers in advance-miniaturized applications.

This family of power inductors offers multiple footprints and inductance tradeoffs. The space saving ASMPH-0603 footprint is 1.6×0.8×0.8mm with current ratings from 1250mA to 300mA and inductance values from  0.22µH to 2.2µH. With inductance values up to 4.7µH, the ASMPH-0805, ASMPH-0806 and ASMPH-1008 offer current carrying capabilities up to 1500mA, enabling a wide range of DC/DC power supply applications.

“Small form factor solutions benefit from the use of DC/DC power conversion,” comments Syed Raza, VP of Engineering with Abracon. “Switch mode, unlike linear power supplies, can remain efficient while operating over a wide input-to-output voltage conversion range, extending battery life. This family of miniature inductors from Abracon are instrumental in miniaturizing these designs.”

“These inductors hit the sweet spot of size, inductance, current carrying capability and maximum DC resistance enabling miniaturization.” states Juan Conchas, Director of Marketing for Abracon. “In conjunction with Abracon’s other product lines, these inductors address Abracon’s strategy of providing solutions across multiple technologies for growing applications such as IoT and wearables.”

Other applications for this series of product include medical monitoring, portable instrumentation, drones, robotics, battery powered equipment,  asset tracking devices, wireless connectivity modules and power supply modules.

 

Series Inductance
(µH)
DC current rating
(mA)
Max DC Resistance
(Ω)
SRF
(MHz)
Dimensions
(mm)
ASMPH-
0603
0.22 to 2.2 1250 to 300 0.1 to 0.3 200 to 80 1.6 x 0.8 x 0.8
ASMPH-
0805
0.47 to 4.7 1200 to 280 0.08 to 0.25 100 to 30 2.0 x 1.25 x 0.9
ASMPH-
0806
0.47 to 4.7 1500 to 220 0.08 to 0.14 100 to 30 2.0 x 1.6 x 0.9
ASMPH-
1008
0.47 to 4.7 1500 to 320 0.04 to 0.11 105 to 25 2.5 x 2.0 x 0.9

 

About Abracon, LLC
Founded in 1992, and headquartered in Irvine, California, Abracon is a leading global manufacturer of passive and electromechanical timing, synchronization, power, connectivity and RF solutions. Abracon offers a wide selection of quartz timing crystals and oscillators, MEMS oscillators, real time tlocks (RTC), Bluetooth modules, ceramic resonators, SAW filters and resonators, power and RF inductors, transformers, circuit protection components and RF antennas and wireless charging coils. The company is ISO9001-2008 certified with design & application engineering resources in California and Texas and sales offices in Texas, California, China, Taiwan, Singapore, Scotland, and Germany. Abracon’s products are offered through its global distribution network.

Abracon Media Contact
PR@abracon.com

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Abracon announces in-stock availability of the ATCA-XX line of high power toroid inductors

Austin, TX – Abracon Holdings, LLC announces the ATCA-XX product line, a broad offering of high power toroid inductors for use in industrial power supplies, LED ballast and heavy duty appliance applications. By containing the majority of magnetic flux within the toroid, these inductors present inherent electromagnetic and RF interference immunity. Offered with vertical or horizontal orientations, they can be placed orthogonally to minimize crosstalk when multiple devices are used.

atca_image

High Power Toroidal Inductor – ATCA Series Product Image

 

Operating temperature of -40C to 105C makes them ideal for high power and industrial applications. Designed for through-hole assembly, the product family offers standard values ranging from 20uH to 1800uH and current ratings up to 10A.

“Due to its simplicity and RFI immunity, the toroid remains a work horse inductor in high power switch mode applications,” says Juan Conchas, Director of Marketing for Abracon. “The combination of wide operating temperature and high current rating makes this broad line of toroids ideal for lighting, white goods, solar inverters, home and industrial appliances, electric motor and other industrial applications.”

These inductors are in stock for off-the-shelf commonly requested options or with short 6 to 8 week lead time for less common and custom configurations.

About Abracon Holdings, LLC.

Founded in 1992, and headquartered in Irvine, California, Abracon is a global manufacturer of frequency control, signal conditioning, clock distribution and magnetic components. Abracon offers a wide selection of Quartz Timing Crystals, Crystal and MEMS Oscillators, Real Time Clocks, Antennas, Bluetooth Modules, Ceramic Resonators, SAW Filters and Resonators, Inductors, Transformers, Circuit Protection Components and Wireless RF Antennas. The company is ISO9001-2008 certified with design & Application Engineering resources in California & Illinois; and Sales offices in Texas, California, China, Taiwan, Singapore, Scotland, and Germany. Abracon’s products are offered through its Global Distribution Network.